The introduction of the term to the English lexicon is widely attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrellat the meeting at the UK's Admiraltywhich led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society. He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II. A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems.
X-windows originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology where they were developed to specify a machine-independent windowing system. DIALOG is an Apollo product that is a first attempt to answer the question of how to write high level mouse-driven applications programs in a high level specification language.
Standards are really the key to future progress in molecular modeling. If all investigators adhere to the ISO standards, then it will be possible to mix various workstations and special purpose computers on a laboratory network.
Adherence to standards should lower the price of equipment to end users by enlarging the market. Special purpose computers offer many possibilities for molecular modeling. Over the years, the National Institutes of Health NIH has funded facilities that developed molecular graphics, computation, and control devices.
The molecular graphics laboratory at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill has been instrumental in exploring the development of a variety of stereo, configurational control, and display devices.
The molecular graphics laboratory at Columbia University is in the process of developing FASTRUN, a special purpose computer attached to a ST array processor that boosts its molecular dynamics power by a factor of The molecular graphics laboratory at the University of California at San Francisco Medical School has developed stereo and color representation techniques.
Special and general purpose graphics devices are increasingly easy to produce. General Electric in Research Triangle, North Carolina has produced a very fast surface graphics processor that can be used to display different types of objects, including molecules.
At least one of the PSCs will have a sphere graphics primitive embedded in a silicon chip. Every effort should be made to encourage the development of special purpose processors.
However, these processors should be required to adhere to the emerging computer standards, so that they can be easily integrated into existing laboratory networks. The last few years have seen the emergence of array processors for laboratory use. The ST is rated at peak megaflops, while the sustained calculation rate is about 30 megaflops.
Floating Point Systems Inc. All are laboratory machines.
The power of supercomputers will obviously be increasing at the same approximate rates. A very strong relationship exists between the architecture of a special purpose computer and the structure of the scientific problem to be solved.
The question is, how much computational power does molecular modeling really need? The most powerful array processors available today make it possible to calculate and examine molecular trajectories three orders of magnitude longer than hitherto possible.
Extending these trajectories an additional three orders of magnitude might bring us to the range where appropriate protein-folding actions can take place. There is some indication that if amino acids were synthesized at the rate of one per microsecond, then folding would be possible.
This would be seven orders of magnitude less computing. If this estimate is close to correct and computing power increases at a rate of 50 percent per year, then current computer processor development will give us the necessary amount of power in 5 to 10 years.
Proponents of centralization argue that certain types of very large calculations are available only on centralized machines. The personal computer revolution showed how profoundly scientists respond to decentralized computation.
The capabilities of personal machines increase at the same pace as the supercomputers, but the baseline machines are a market of to machines, whereas the supercomputers are a market of to Special purpose boards added to the baseline machine can raise its capabilities for specific functions i.
The distribution of personal computation is driven totally by market forces and is not subject to centralized planning. Scientists buy laboratory computers with funds previously allocated for glassware.
Postdoctoral students returning to their country of origin bring their personal computers. Floppy disks containing data files and even whole books form a new type of currency in countries operating centrally planned economies. These modes of behavior form a valuable dichotomy.
We need a balance between centralizing and decentralizing efforts. Individual scientists can participate in the planning and use of national supercomputers, while simultaneously helping to specify and buy smaller machines for their personal and laboratory use.
The workstations will become more popular with scientists as they acquire larger, faster, and more complex working programs; better graphics; more storage and access to other computers; and new data sources.
|Hardware - Computer-Assisted Modeling - NCBI Bookshelf||Springer Publishing Company Format Available: It is a must-have for all disciplines interested in adding the human simulation experience to their programs.|
|CENTRAL VERSUS DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING||Tepas wanted help with the development of intereactive system for searches. Instead, the NSF suggested that a conference be arranged and its proceedings published, which was indeed done.|
|The Next 25 Years – Association for Psychological Science||Their professor announces that today they will be joined by a guest lecturer, a senior VP from a Fortune corporation.|
|Society for Computers in Psychology - Wikipedia||Edit Traditionally, the formal modelling, or modeling, of systems has been via a mathematical modelwhich attempts to find analytical solutions to problems which enables the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions. While computer simulations might use some algorithms from purely mathematical models, computers can combine simulations with reality of actual events, such as generating input responses, to simulate test subjects who are no longer present.|
A few years ago, only specialists searched DNA sequence data bases; now, because many workers have PCs in their laboratories, almost all molecular biologists search these data bases.
Workstation use is likely to follow the same pattern. Now, molecular graphics techniques are used only by departmental or laboratory specialists.The Society for Computers in Psychology (SCiP) is a scholarly society founded in with the purpose of the increasing and diffusing knowledge of the use of computers in psychological research.
SCiP is an organization of researchers interested in applications of computational techniques and methods in .
Researchers use ICE to study topics in fields including nuclear energy, astrophysics, additive manufacturing, advanced materials, neutron science and quantum computing, answering questions such . How Technology Enhances Teaching and Learning. This article was originally published in the Fall issue of the CFT’s newsletter, Teaching Forum.
By Ellen M. Granberg Students at the Owen School’s Strategy in the New Economy seminar enter a classroom that looks like any other, except that a projection system and video screen have been installed. The Computational Perception Laboratory (CPL) was developed to explore and develop the next generation of intelligent machines, interfaces, and environments for modeling, perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with humans.
The purpose of these facilities is to use advanced visualization technology to enhance the accomplishment of IU's missions in research, education, and creative activities.
The facilities are available for use by qualified Indiana University faculty, staff, and students. Using computers to model the human brain Date: July 3, Source: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology - OIST Summary: The human brain is the most complex computer in existence.