Classical conditioning is a form of behaviorism in which a specific stimulus produces a predictable response.
By Saul McLeodupdated Classical conditioning also known as Pavlovian conditioning is learning through association and was discovered by Pavlova Russian physiologist. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal.
Everything from speech to emotional responses was simply patterns of stimulus and response. Watson denied completely the existence of the mind or consciousness.
Watson believed that all individual differences in behavior were due to different experiences of learning. Classical Conditioning Examples There are three stages of classical conditioning.
At each stage the stimuli and responses are given special scientific terms: In this respect, no new behavior has been learned yet. This stage also involves another stimulus which has no effect on a person and is called the neutral stimulus NS. The NS could be a person, object, place, etc.
The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not produce a response until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. During this stage a stimulus which produces no response i. For example, a stomach virus UCS might be associated with eating a certain food such as chocolate CS.
For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus should occur before the unconditioned stimulus, rather than after it, or during the same time. Thus, the conditioned stimulus acts as a type of signal or cue for the unconditioned stimulus. Often during this stage, the UCS must be associated with the CS on a number of occasions, or trials, for learning to take place.
However, one trail learning can happen on certain occasions when it is not necessary for an association to be strengthened over time such as being sick after food poisoning or drinking too much alcohol. Did it also apply to humans?
In a famous though ethically dubious experiment, Watson and Rayner showed that it did. Little Albert was a 9-month-old infant who was tested on his reactions to various stimuli.
He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey and various masks. Albert described as "on the whole stolid and unemotional" showed no fear of any of these stimuli.
However, what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against a steel bar behind his head. The sudden loud noise would cause "little Albert to burst into tears.
When Little Albert was just over 11 months old, the white rat was presented, and seconds later the hammer was struck against the steel bar.
This was done seven times over the next seven weeks, and each time Little Albert burst into tears. By now little Albert only had to see the rat and he immediately showed every sign of fear. He would cry whether or not the hammer was hit against the steel bar and he would attempt to crawl away. In addition, the Watson and Rayner found that Albert developed phobias of objects which shared characteristics with the rat; including the family dog, a fur coat, some cotton wool and a Father Christmas mask!
This process is known as generalization. Watson and Rayner had shown that classical conditioning could be used to create a phobia.Classical Conditioning is a theory that is widely used in the field of psychology. However, eLearning professionals can also apply it in their eLearning course design to positively reinforce performance behaviors and create effective eLearning conditions.
Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Classical conditioning predicts that by repeatedly pairing a motivationally significant stimulus (such as food) with a particular signal (such as a ringing bell) will result in a conditioned. Classical conditioning is a form of learning whereby a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus, in order to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response.
Classical conditioning works because it uses the brain’s ability to pattern match. Some of these are innate (such as a baby knowing the shape and feel of a nipple) and pattern matches can be learned too, as with Pavlov’s dogs. Breaking bad habits: classical conditioning and smoking But psychological conditioning can be used to break bad Classical conditioning predicts that by repeatedly pairing a .