Revolution in Technology and Social Stability:
Alexander Friedmann was the first scientist to propose an expanding universe model which greatly influenced cosmology in the 20th century. Dmitri Ivanenko was the first to propose the proton-neutron model of atomic nuclei and nuclear shell model Georgiy Gamov proposed the theory of the alpha decay of a nucleus via tunnelling and was an author of Big Bang theory.
Nikolay Bogolyubov suggested a triplet quark model, introduced a new quantum degree of freedom later called as color charge for quarks  and formulated a microscopic theory of superconductivity. Igor TammAndrei Sakharov and Lev Artsimovich developed the idea of tokamak for controlled nuclear fusion and created its first prototype, which finally led to the modern ITER project.
Yevgeny Zavoisky discovered electron paramagnetic resonance playing important role in studying chemical species. Zhores Alferov greatly contributed to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics which find many applications in modern life: In two Russian-born and educated physicists Konstantin Novoselov and Andre Geim were awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in graphenea material which may have important applications in electronics, aviation and medicine.
For example, the first design of magnetic resonance imaging was proposed by Vladislav Ivanov in but was not realized at that time. List of Russian mathematicians In mathematics Nikolai Lobachevskya Copernicus of Geometryfounded the non-Euclidean geometry playing important role in modern physics.
In the 19th century the international recognition was also gained by such mathematicians as Mikhail Ostrogradsky and Sofia Kovalevskaya who was the first major Russian female mathematician, responsible for important original contributions to analysis, differential equations and mechanics, and the first woman appointed to a full professorship in Northern Europe.
Yevgraf Fyodorov was a founder of the modern structural crystallography Fedorov group. At least after such prominent scientist as Chebyshev the Russian mathematical school became one of the most influential ones in the world and was represented by numerous figures greatly contributing to different fields of mathematics, physics and computing sciences.
In the beginning of the 20th century Nikolai Zhukovsky and Sergei Chaplygin were among founding fathers of the modern aero- and hydrodynamics and Vladimir Kotelnikov was a pioneer in information theory by independently proposing the fundamental sampling theorem.
Andrei Kolmogorova leading mathematician of the 20th century, developed the foundation of the modern theory of probability and made other key contributions to broadest range of mathematical branches, such as turbulencemathematical logictopologydifferential equationsset theoryautomata theoryinformation theorytheory of algorithmsdynamical systemsstochastic processestheory of integrationclassical mechanicsmathematical linguisticsmathematical biology and applied sciences.
Israel Gelfand is credited with many important discoveries in algebra, topology, mathematical physics and applied sciences. Sergei Sobolev developed the theory of Sobolev space which played an extremely important role in formation of modern mathematical views and introduced the notion of distributions generalizing ideas of Newton and Leibniz.
Such mathematicians as Lev Pontryaginwho made major contributions to topology and functional analysis and a founder of the modern optimal control theory, Andrey Tychonoffwho was the author of the "central theorem"  of the general topologyPavel Alexandrova very important figure in topology of the 20th century, and many others made fundamental contributions to different fields of mathematics.Russia is used as an example of a country where the share of national income of the rich fell, as indeed it did.
The bank is quite right to say that the top 10% of Russians took 52% of the pie in. How capitalism revolutionized the way we live, and how economics attempts to understand this and other economic systems.
Since the s, increases in average living standards became a permanent feature of economic life in many countries. Science and technology in Russia Current priorities for the country's technological development include energy efficiency, IT Sergei Lebedev developed one of the first universally programmable computers in continental Europe in , MESM.
§ Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies, High School, Beginning with School Year The provisions of §§ of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the school year.
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is similar to other sides of the history of rutadeltambor.comlogy can refer to methods ranging from as simple as language and stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the s.
The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft. Watch video · Home manufacturing may well be the next technological revolution, changing our life as much as computers, mobile phones and the internet have.
But the world may not be prepared when some of the consequences, such as printable weapons, arrive.