For instance, boys and girls are born with distinctive sexual organs, and become further differentiated when secondary sexual characteristics emerge upon puberty. Naturally occurring chemical messenger compounds in the body known as hormones are responsible for coordinating the appearance of these physical differences. Some research suggests that the same sex hormones that enable sexual organ differentiation in utero and which later trigger puberty also pl an important role in shaping gender identity.
Table of Contents Political Socialization People acquire political culture through a process known as political socialization. Although the bulk of political socialization occurs during childhood, adults continue to be socialized.
Political socialization occurs in many ways: For this reason, family tends to be the most important source of political socialization. Families mostly impart political culture unintentionally by acting as examples for the children.
Very often, people end up with political beliefs similar to those of their parents. Most children learn about their country at school, usually through a curriculum known as civic education. This curriculum trains young people to be good citizens, often via history, government, and social studies.
Although these lessons are usually basic, many of the key ideas and values of a society are imparted through school. Most students learn about U. For example, the end of racial segregation is usually discussed as a sign of the progress America has made toward equality and liberty.
Roman Catholicism has a well-defined set of positions on many political issues, ranging from abortion to capital punishment to social justice. Although not all Catholics oppose abortion or favor more welfare programs, many do as a result of their religious beliefs.
Social and economic class: Blue-collar workers in the United States tend to favor liberal economic policies but usually oppose many liberal social policies.
For much of the twentieth century, economic issues seemed more important to many blue-collar workers, so they tended to vote for the Democrats. In the last few decades, though, social issues have taken on new importance, and an increasing number of blue-collar workers have voted Republican.
Members of a minority group sometimes feel like outsiders, and this feeling of isolation and alienation affects their attitudes toward society and government. This is particularly true when the minority group is treated either better or worse than others in society. The power of media is increasing with the spread of hour cable news networks, talk radio, the Internet, and the seeming omnipresence of personal audio and video devices, so the influence of the media on political socialization is no longer confined to the young.
World War II defined the attitudes of many Americans, especially those who served in it. Many veterans became dedicated to living up to the ideals professed in the war. Twenty years later, the Vietnam War would have a similarly important impact, fostering skepticism of foreign military operations.
In the s, the Watergate scandal instilled a profound mistrust of government in many people. The Role of Government The government plays a role in political socialization in a variety of ways.
It determines the policies and curricula, including what books students may read, for public schools.
The government also regulates the media, which affects what we see and hear. These choices have a subtle effect on viewers: We learn that bad language is inappropriate and that family is an essential part of American life and therefore American political culture.
Similarly, governments frequently stage parades and celebrations to commemorate important events and people in history. Every American state requires students to pass tests in order to graduate from high school.
To pass the tests, students take courses in these topics, which allows the states to emphasize what they consider important by regulating the curricula.
The states sometimes differ greatly in what they teach. In authoritarian and totalitarian regimes, the government often takes active measures to inculcate loyalty, especially in younger people.
Similar programs existed in the former Soviet Union. Plato and Socialization In The Republic bcePlato writes about the creation of a good aristocratic regime. But most of the book describes the educational system and discusses what will be taught to the young.
In fact, Plato even claims that, in order for the good republic to succeed, the city founders must expel everyone over the age of ten because their attitudes have already been shaped and cannot be changed.The target's likelihood to be influenced by a specific influencer depends on four factors: a.
Relevance (the right information): How closely the target's information needs coincide with the influencer's expertise. Start studying 4 factors that influence political socialization. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Mass media is a significant force in modern culture, particularly in America. Sociologists refer to this as a mediated culture where media reflects and creates the culture. Communities and individuals are bombarded constantly with messages from a multitude of sources including TV, billboards, and magazines, to name a few.
A summary of Political Socialization in 's Political Culture and Public Opinion. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Political Culture and Public Opinion and what it means.
Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Political Context and the Development of Party Identification in Adolescence Partisanship is a powerful influence on people’s perceptions of politics – informing candidate choice, serving as a decision heuristic, and biasing how new political information is.
· Explain how public opinion is formed in the United States, including political socialization by families, education, peers, the media, opinion leaders, and the influence of events. · Specify the influence of education and occupation on voting behavior.