Reconstruction period[ edit ] The sources of the rituals, titles and even the name of the original KKK may be found in antebellum college fraternities and secret societies such as the Kuklos Adelphon.
The influence of Old Norse certainly helped move English from a synthetic language with relatively free word order, towards a more analytic or isolating language with more strict word order, a deep change at the grammatical level. The eagerness of Vikings in the Danelaw to communicate with their southern Anglo-Saxon neighbors produced a friction that led to the erosion of inflection in both languages;   Old Norse likely had a greater impact on this deep change to Middle and Modern English than any other language.
It was, after all, a salutary influence.
The gain was greater than the loss. There was a gain in directness, in clarity, and in strength". The change to Old English from Old Norse was substantive, pervasive, and of a democratic character. The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual understanding.
In the mixed population which existed in the Danelaw these endings must have led to much confusion, tending gradually to become obscured and finally lost. Norman thus came into use as a language of polite discourse and literature, and this fundamentally altered the role of Old English in education and administration, even though many Normans of the early period were illiterate and depended on the clergy for written communication and record-keeping.
The role of Anglo-Norman as the language of government and law can be seen in the abundance of Modern English words for the mechanisms of government that derive from Anglo-Norman: There are also many Norman-derived terms relating to the chivalric cultures that arose in the 12th century, an era of feudalism and crusading.
Often, words were also taken from Latinusually through French transmission.
This gave such sets as kingly inherited from Old Englishroyal from French, which inherited it from Vulgar Latinregal from French, which borrowed it from classical Latin.
Later French borrowings came from standard rather than Norman French; this leads to such cognate pairs as warden from Normanguardian from later French; both of these words in fact derive from the same Germanic word.
The end of Anglo-Saxon rule did not, of course, change the language immediately. The general population would have spoken the same dialects as before the Conquest; these changed slowly until written records of them became available for study, which varies in different regions.
Once the writing of Old English came to an end, Middle English had no standard language, only dialects that derived from the dialects of the same regions in the Anglo-Saxon period. Early Middle English[ edit ] Early Middle English —  has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary with many Norse borrowings in the northern parts of the countrybut a greatly simplified inflectional system.
The grammatical relations that were expressed in Old English by the dative and instrumental cases are replaced in Early Middle English with prepositional constructions. The dual personal pronouns denoting exactly two also disappeared from English during this period. Gradually, the wealthy and the government Anglicised again, although Norman and subsequently French remained the dominant language of literature and law until the 14th century, even after the loss of the majority of the continental possessions of the English monarchy.
The loss of case endings was part of a general trend from inflections to fixed word order that also occurred in other Germanic languages, and therefore cannot be attributed simply to the influence of French-speaking sections of the population: English did, after all, remain the vernacular.
It is also argued  that Norse immigrants to England had a great impact on the loss of inflectional endings in Middle English. Important texts for the reconstruction of the evolution of Middle English out of Old English are the Peterborough Chroniclewhich continued to be compiled up to ; the Ormuluma biblical commentary probably composed in Lincolnshire in the second half of the 12th century, incorporating a unique phonetic spelling system; and the Ancrene Wisse and the Katherine Groupreligious texts written for anchoressesapparently in the West Midlands in the early 13th century.
Some scholars  have defined "Early Middle English" as encompassing English texts up to This longer time frame would extend the corpus to include many Middle English Romances especially those of the Auchinleck manuscript ca. The Ayenbite of Inwyta translation of a French confessional prose work, completed inis written in a Kentish dialect.
In the English-speaking areas of lowland Scotlandan independent standard was developing, based on the Northumbrian dialect. This would develop into what came to be known as the Scots language.Pearson Prentice Hall and our other respected imprints provide educational materials, technologies, assessments and related services across the secondary curriculum.
Study Period 4 Vocab flashcards from Dominique J. on StudyBlue. Study Period 4 Vocab flashcards from Dominique J. on StudyBlue. Flashcards. Sign Up This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
GRADE 2 MCCSC VOCABULARY Marking Period 4 Rock View Elementary School, MCPS Page 1 of 4 Decomposing: breaking a number into two or more parts to make it easier with which to work. For example: When combining a set of 5 and a set of 8, a student might decompose 8 into a.
Practice makes perfect! Improve your Japanese significantly with our free online practice tests. We have JLPT Kanji, grammar, vocabulary, reading and listening tests in all levels. STUDENT MODULE EARNING AN INCOME PAGE 1 © Evaluate the relationship between budgets and goals. Personal Financial Literacy Vocabulary Budget: A plan for managing money, dividing up expected income and expenses among spending and saving options based on personal goals during a given time period.
Expenses: The costs of. Please enable cookies in your browser preferences and click the refresh button to continue using Passport.