Did CHOs make us human?
The UK swears by five-a-day. The USA proposes nine-a-day: The European advice varies as follows: Denmark says eat six-a-day. The Irish have a food pyramid, not a plate more American and they go for four plus -a-day.
The Belgians and Austrians also favour five-a-day. Italy just says eat more fruit and vegetables — very libertarian. Hence, the Spanish have a free hand in choosing their number-a-day and they also have advice for moderate intakes of wine and beer along the side of their pyramid.
Germany spot a centre of engineering expertise has a three dimensional food pyramid indicating qualitative and quantitative nutritional information. They also have a staircase picture elsewhere on a public health website with fruit and vegetables on the bottom step the largest group to be consumed ; meat, fish and dairy on the next step; German sausages and whole grains on the next step and then other grains and finally junk on the final two steps.
I also heard anecdotally, from an attendee of the Amsterdam obesity conference, that the German delegates were recommending grams of vegetables per day while fruit was not quantified.
So where did the pick-a-number-a-day all start? Five-a-day has since been trademarked by the National Cancer Institute.
Highbush Blueberry Council blueberries ; Ocean Mist artichokes and fresh vegetables ; Giorgio mushrooms ; Columbine Vineyards grapes ; Nature sweet tomatoes; Potandon Produce potatoes and Paramount Farms nuts and flavoured nut snacks. Although we may mind less about tomatoes and berries being sponsored, than sugar and white flour, this is still a conflict of interest.
It would have seemed achievable and it was the number of digits on one hand and, I Nutrition discussion set 1 suggest, no more scientific than this. It was never the outcome of evidence based, thoroughly researched, scientific investigation. It was a marketing campaign — and the most successful nutrition marketing campaign that the world has seen.
Having been launched with no evidence whatsoever, there have been numerous attempts since to post-rationalise and to justify this worldwide campaign. It must be noted at the outset that this was never intended to be an obesity campaign.
If it were designed as a general healthy eating campaign — to what end? It is difficult to know what this programme was intended to be, other than an excellent commercial venture for all the companies involved at conception.
With no evidence at the time or sinceof any benefit from eating a certain number of fruits and vegetables each day, it is incredible to realise how far this marketing programme has gone. Now, as with so many other elements of our diet advice, we reiterate the slogan daily with no idea from whence it came.
In April a study was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute written by Paolo Boffetta, as the lead of a large group of European researchers.
This review of almost half a million people found that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables a day had little effect on cancer risk and the very small difference observed could be explained by other factors.
The study also grouped participants into five categories from the lowest intake of fruits and vegetables 0 to grams a day to the highest intake more than grams a day.
Significantly, the cancer risk did not vary between the five groups. The overall conclusion of the study was that: Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
Professor Tim Key concluded that: A worldwide instruction to citizens of tens of countries, across three continents, should be based on clear empirical evidence and that evidence should have been tested and verified before any public health advice was issued.
Seeds, nuts and their oils are the best source of vitamin E. Two fruits do have a fat content — avocados and olives.
Assuming again that our carotene conversion is optimal, 70 grams of carrots could provide the retinol equivalent, but we would need to eat them with ideally butter for this to be absorbed.
For vitamin D, avocado and olives score zero; grams of herring provides Sunflower seeds, however, provide Avocado contains 21 micrograms of vitamin K1 per grams, which is valuable, but no fruit or vegetable can provide K2.
The best sources of the B vitamins are meat especially organ meatfish, milk and eggs. Whole grains and dried yeast are also a good source of B vitamins, but fruits and vegetables do not appear on lists of top sources of B vitamins.
B12, of course, is only found in animal products and therefore must be taken as a supplement by vegans vegetarians can get B12 in milk and eggs. Guavas and peppers provide the highest single source of vitamin C from fruits and vegetables respectively — with milligrams per grams for guavas and milligrams per grams for raw yellow peppers.
However, as noted earlier in this chapter, the USDA database records many animal and nut sources of vitamin C and in substantial quantities. Potassium is the one mineral for which fruits and vegetables are the best sources.Integrative and Functional Nutrition (IFN) therapy is a leading-edge, evidence-based, systems biology approach to patient care that focuses on identifying root causes and imbalances to significantly improve patient health outcomes.
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Sustainable Nutrition Manual.
The second edition of the Sustainable Nutrition Manual was endorsed by Malawi’s Agriculture Technology Clearing Committee (ATCC) and can now be downloaded at. Nutrition: Nutrition, the assimilation by living organisms of food materials that enable them to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce.
Food provides materials from which all the structural and catalytic components of the living cell can be assembled. Learn more about nutrients and the nutrient requirements of organisms.
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