History[ edit ] E-S theory was developed by psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen as a major reconceptualization of cognitive sex differences in the general population and in an effort to understand why the cognitive difficulties in autism appeared to lie in domains in which he says on average females outperformed males and why cognitive strengths in autism appeared to lie in domains in which on average males outperformed females. The two sexes are different. To address this, Baron-Cohen put forward the E-S theory. A candidate biological factor influencing E and S is fetal testosterone FT.
Search Share The largest study to look at sex differences in brain anatomy found that women tend to have thicker cortices, whereas men had higher brain volume. The question has been as difficult to answer as it has been controversial.
Now, the largest brain-imaging study of its kind indeed finds some sex-specific patterns, but overall more similarities than differences.
The work raises new questions about how brain differences between the sexes may influence intelligence and behavior. Most studies have looked at relatively small sample sizes—typically fewer than brains—making large-scale conclusions impossible.
In the new study, a team of researchers led by psychologist Stuart Ritchie, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Edinburgh, turned to data from UK Biobankan ongoing, long-term biomedical study of people living in the United Kingdom withenrollees.
A subset of those enrolled in the study underwent brain scans using MRI.
Adjusting for age, on average, they found that women tended to have significantly thicker cortices than men. Thicker cortices have been associated with higher scores on a variety of cognitive and general intelligence tests.
When the researchers adjusted the numbers to look at the subcortical regions relative to overall brain size, the comparisons became much closer: There were only 14 regions where men had higher brain volume and 10 regions where women did.
It fits with a lot of other evidence that seems to point toward males being more variable physically and mentally.
In other words, just by looking at the brain scan, or height, of someone plucked at random from the study, researchers would be hard pressed to say whether it came from a man or woman.
But since previous research mostly used relatively small sample sizes, this study confirms these predictions. Many of the women in the study were in the age range of the stages of menopause, and hormonal fluctuations have been shown to influence brain structures.
That may have played some role in the sex differences noted in the study, she says. The controversial—and still unsettled—question is whether these patterns mean anything to intelligence or behavior. Though popular culture is replete with supposed examples of intellectual and behavioral differences between the sexes, only a few, like higher physical aggression in men, have been borne out by scientific research.
He is focused on accurately describing the differences in the male and female brain, not speculating on what they could mean.Stanford Medicine.
Search. Spring , Sex, gender and medicine Social psychologists and sociologists pooh-poohed the notion of any fundamental cognitive differences between male and female humans, notes Halpern, a professor emerita of psychology at Claremont McKenna College.
The neuroscience literature shows that the human brain is a. Differences in Male and Female Brain Structure - Male and female brain structure really aren't the same: men use more gray matter, while women use white matter.
Explore male and female brain structure. Male and female brains actually differ right down at the genetic level in quite a drastic way.
Studies reveal that typically EVERY CELL in the male brain contains a Y chromosome. Brain Pickings remains free (and ad-free) and takes me hundreds of hours a month to research and write, and thousands of dollars to sustain.. If you find any joy and value in what I do, please consider becoming a Sustaining Patron with a recurring monthly donation of your choosing, between a cup of tea and a good lunch.
Feb 12, · Body and mind.
Information, in the form of nerve impulses, travels to and from your brain along your spinal cord. This allows your brain to monitor and regulate unconscious body processes, such as.
For decades, brain scientists have noticed that on average, male brains tend to have slightly higher total brain volume than female ones, even when corrected for males’ larger average body size.