History of Oman Prehistory and ancient history[ edit ] At Aybut Al Auwalin the Dhofar Governorate of Oman, a site was discovered in containing more than surface scatters of stone tools, belonging to a regionally specific African lithic industry —the late Nubian Complex—known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa.
There has been a rush on ATMs in Greece in recent days. Aris Messinis Though it became gospel around the globe, euro-enthusiasm was always misguided. The crisis currently facing Greece shouldn't come as a surprise, writes Matthew Dal Santo.
Has a Greek default begun? Or is this just the European Central Bank's way of affording the country's feckless inhabitants a foretaste of what it would be like? It's too early to say. Either way, it's clear that what has failed here is not the negotiations; it's the euro itself.
Put to the test, its entire foundation has been found wanting. The worst of it is that all this - the acrimony between Brussels, Berlin and Athens; the misery induced across Greece by depression-era levels of unemployment - was not just entirely predictable but actually predicted.
Anyone who subscribes to the London Review of Books will have noticed the reappearance over the weekend of the essay ' Maastricht and all that ' by Wynne Godley - a man who, according to his own biography, started his working life as a 'professional oboe player' and ended it as director of applied economics at Cambridge.
Godley's was not the profile of the usual eurosceptic. On the contrary, he was a strong supporter of European integration. What he objected to was its form.
But if Godley's first big criticism of Maastricht was that it entailed a vision of the nature of the economy that only an investment banker could embrace, his second big criticism was the corollary fudge Maastricht attempted to make about the euro's impact on national sovereignty.
Just because the euro didn't create a federal government to manage what was now to all intents and purposes a federal currency didn't mean that Europe's nation-states remained their own political and economic masters. Typically, the euro-enthusiast tells the public a nauseatingly win-win story.
Nothing is being lost with European integration, just wonderful new things created. For European countries, the EU doesn't mean an undignified surrender of historically hard-won independence, but a giant bring-and-share party where, magically, European integration doesn't entail the loss of national sovereignty but simply the pooling of some of its attributes: If it helps, think of Brussels as home to a giant lazy Susan.
As Godley saw, however, when it comes to currency union, the bring-and-share model is an illusion. Once European governments have put their drachmas and guilders, francs, lire and marks on the common table, they then discover that they've handed over whole branches of economic and political responsibilities too.
Despite supporting what he never ceased to call the "noble cause of European integration", therefore, Godley wasn't to be fooled: It needs to be emphasised from the start that the establishment of a single currency [ And this is precisely what has happened.
Faced with the slump in the global economy produced by the default of US investment banks inGreece could no longer devalue its currency. On the contrary, the euro strengthened as the dollar sank.
That left Athens at the mercy of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt, the sole institution created to manage the single currency. It might agree to cover Greece's mounting debts or it might not.
Either way, the voice of more powerful members of the currency union - above all, Germany - would count for more in its decision than that of Greece.
Starting fromthe seat of the Greek government was thus effectively transferred from Athens to Brussels, Washington and Berlin. Left in Greece itself was little more than the power to administer national policies and implement sovereign decisions made abroad.
In Godley's words, a country in such a position "acquires the status of a local authority or a colony". For this reason, the referendum the Greek government has called for next weekend wrongly is seen as simply irresponsible or bizarrely pointless.
Yes, the terms of the bailout the Greek people are being asked to ratify or reject will have expired. Yes, the Greek government might already have failed to make its June 30 repayments.
But in appearances at least, Greece is still at the negotiating table. Rather than jumping, Greece has effectively waited to be pushed out of the euro. This not only allows the blame for the resulting economic repercussions to land primarily on Angela Merkel and Christine Lagarde's shoulders.Total number of Ps found: (54%) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z PA PB PC PD PE PF PG PH PI PJ PK PL PM PN PO PP PQ PR PS PT PU PV PW PX PY PZ.
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As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from rutadeltambor.com Though it became gospel around the globe, euro-enthusiasm was always misguided. The crisis currently facing Greece shouldn't come as a surprise, writes Matthew Dal Santo.
Rulers Index Sa Sá, Filipe Franco de (b. June 2, , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - d. March 8, , Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), foreign minister (), war minister (), and .