Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes within a cell that converts biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP adenosine triphosphatethen releases waste.
Factors Affecting the Rate of Aerobic Respiration: The following points highlight the ten factors affecting the the rate of aerobic respiration. Young actively growing meristematic tissues have always higher rates of respiration than older and more mature parts.
The proportion of protoplasm, both relative and absolute, is always greater in the young cells compared to maturer, vacuolated cells. There seems to be a direct relationship between the amount of protoplasm and the respiration rates—the greater the protoplasm, the higher is the respiration rate.
The decline of respiration at temperatures below zero can be attributed to the formation of ice and consequent dehydration of protoplasm.
Supply of Oxidisable Food: Oxygen Concentration of the Atmosphere: In considering first the effect of oxygen concentration in gas mixtures at N. The oxygen poisoning, i. This inhibiting effect was also observed with green peas when they were exposed to pure oxygen exerting a pressure of 5 atm.
The oxygen poisoning effect was reversible, if the exposure to high oxygen pressure was not too prolonged. The relation of oxygen concentration to respiration has a particularly important implication in the growth of the roots. Roots must respire vigorously if they are to grow and take up minerals from the soil by active absorption.
The vigorous root respiration is only possible if the space surrounding the roots and root hairs has ample supply of oxygen. When the roots are poorly aerated as in water-logged or heavy soils, growth of the plant may be significantly restricted.
Carbon Dioxide Concentration of the Atmosphere: This fact is made use of in storage of fruit. The oxygen content of the air, however, must be maintained as high as normal to prevent anaerobic respiration. In some plant tissues, however, respiration rate actually increases when exposed to relatively high concentration of CO2.
It is thought now that the effect of CO2-concentration on the respiration rate is influenced not only by its concentration in the medium but also depends upon the kind of tissue and the period of exposure.
Increase in the percentage of moisture leads to a general increase in respiration rate. This increase is slow at first but very rapid later. This is very clearly seen in the tissues of many xerophytes.
As far as we know light has no direct effect on respiration except in bringing about an increase in temperature which certainly, as we know well, influences respiration.
The indirect effect of light on respiration is, of course, immense because only in light the primary respiratory substrates are synthesised. That light has no direct effect on respiratory activity has been shown in some mutant strains of Chlorella which, although green, cannot photosynthesise.
These algae, however, grow and respire when supplied with a suitable source of carbon. With blue-green alga, Anabaena, however, respiration rate was found to depend on light, and the effect was also influenced by O2-concentration. The term photorespiration has attracted a lot of attention during the last few years.
It is used to indicate increased respiratory activity in light, regardless of the pathways of respiration, by which CO2 is released and oxygen consumed. This light respiration is stimulated by high oxygen concentration of the medium.
The different responses by plants to temperature also suggest that this photorespiration is different from normal mitochondrial respiration. In tropical HSK-plants e. Compared to these plants, the temperate species, which fix CO2 primarily by following the classical cycle, have very high respiratory rates.
The chlorides of alkali cations of Na and K, as also the divalent cations of Li, Ca and Mg, generally increase the rate of respiration as measured by the amount of CO2 evolved, although there is considerable difference in the effects of monovalent and divalent cations.
With monovalent chlorides of K and Na, the high respiration rates may be maintained for some 7—10 days whereas with divalent chlorides of Li, Ca and Mg, the increased rate observed generally falls off after about a day.
Similar results are obtained with NH4Cl but in all cases this effect seems to be transitory. The transitory increased respiration rates on addition of chlorides, particularly of potassium and sodium may be calculated as total respiration in salts minus the ground- respiration ordinary respirationunconnected with salt uptake.
The ground respiration is essentially cyanide resistant whereas the extra respiration due to salt addition was found to be cyanide sensitive—M cyanide completely abolished the increased respiration. This enhanced respiration has been termed salt respiration or anion respiration which, according to Lundegardh, was directly related to the total amount of anion absorbed by plant cells rather than to the absorption of cations.
Injury and the Effects of Mechanical Stimulation: Wounding or injury almost invariably results in an increase in the rate of respiration. Broken and shrivelled seeds and kernels have always higher respiration intensities than clean, intact seeds of the same type and moisture content.
This increased rate of respiration following injury is not, however, maintained for more than 48—72 hours.As respiration is an enzyme-catalyzed process, its rate is highly dependent on environmental temperature and increases sharply with increases in temperature in the biological range of 0°C to 40°C.
Although the process appears complex, the basic patterns can be described in simple terms as outlined in Figure Carbon dioxide and water are products of the series of reactions involved in cellular respiration. There are several methods of indirectly measuring the rate of cellular respiration in organisms.
One method involves monitoring changes in temperature; since the process of respiration is exergonic (produces heat).
Cellular respiration is a process all living organisms alike undergo, whether its aerobic or anaerobic. Organisms obtain food from their outside environment and use it to harvest energy. With cellular respiration, growth and development is possible.
Factors Affecting the Rate of Aerobic Respiration: 10 Factors. in mitochondria) are important protoplasmic factors which contribute to the effects obtained. Factor # 2. Temperature: Within certain limits (°C.) increase in temperature leads to an increase in the initial respiration rate. in which the entire volume of CO 2 evolved.
This process is called cellular respiration which requires nutrient molecules and oxygen. Carbon dioxide and water are products of the series of reactions involved in cellular respiration.
One method involves monitoring changes in temperature; since the process of respiration is exergonic (produces heat). Data and Analysis. Cold. Effects of Temperature on Cell Respiration Cell respiration is the process by which organisms oxidize food materials to CO2 and H2O.
Energy is liberated during respiration since the C and H atoms in the fuel molecules are electron rich as compared to the C and H atoms in CO2 and H2O.
Tetra¬zolium is a colorless compound when it is in.