Development[ edit ] Nicholas Onuf is usually credited with coining the term "constructivism" to describe theories that stress the socially constructed character of international relations. Nevertheless, Alexander Wendt is the best-known advocate of social constructivism in the field of international relations. By attempting to show that even such a core realist concept as " power politics " is socially constructed—that is, not given by nature and hence, capable of being transformed by human practice—Wendt opened the way for a generation of international relations scholars to pursue work in a wide range of issues from a constructivist perspective. Wendt further developed these ideas in his central work, Social Theory of International Politics
Postcolonialism and international relations theory Postcolonial International relations scholarship posits a critical theory approach to International relations IRand is a non-mainstream area of international relations scholarship. Post-colonialism focuses on the persistence of colonial forms of power and the continuing existence of racism in world politics.
However, a variety of evolved psychological mechanisms, in particular those for dealing with inter group interactions, are argued to influence current international relations. These include evolved mechanisms for social exchange, cheating and detecting cheating, status conflicts, leadership, ingroup and outgroup distinction and biases, coalitions, and violence.
Evolutionary concepts such as inclusive fitness may help explain seeming limitations of a concept such as egotism which is of fundamental importance to realist and rational choice international relations theories.
Nayef Al-Rodhan from Oxford University has argued that neuroscience  can significantly advance the IR debate as it brings forward new insights about human nature, which is at the centre of political theory.
New tools to scan the human brain, and studies in neurochemistry allow us to grasp what drives divisiveness,  conflict, and human nature in general. The theory of human nature in Classical Realism, developed long before the advent of neuroscience, stressed that egoism and competition were central to human behaviour, to politics and social relations.
Evidence from neuroscience, however, provides a more nuanced understanding of human nature, which Prof. Al-Rodhan describes as emotional amoral egoistic. These three features can be summarized as follows: This neurophilosophy of human nature can also be applied to states  - similarly to the Realist analogy between the character and flaws of man and the state in international politics.
Prof Al-Rodhan argues there are significant examples in history and contemporary politics that demonstrate states behave less rationality than IR dogma would have us believe: Queer and transgender perspectives[ edit ] Queer international relations scholarship aims to broaden the scope and method of traditional international relations theory to include sexed and gendered approaches that are often excluded in the discipline at large.
While affiliated with feminist theory and gender studiesas well as post-structuralismqueer IR theory is not reducible to any other field of international relations scholarship.
Queer international relations theory works to expose the many ways in which sexualities and gender affect international politics. Queer IR theory takes sites of traditional international relations scholarship war and peace, international political economyand state and nation building as its subjects of study.
It also expands its scope and methods beyond those traditionally utilized in Realist IR scholarship. Ontologicallyqueer IR utilizes a different scope from traditional IR, as it aims to non-monolithically address the needs of various queer groups, including trans - inter- cross- and pan- gendered, sexed, and sexualized bodies.
Epistemologicallyqueer IR explores alternative methodologies to those traditionally used in IR, as it emphasizes the sexual dimension of knowledge within international relations.
While queer IR incorporates transgender individuals in its expanded scope, some argue its emphasis on sexuality fails to adequately capture transgender experiences. This leads Stryker to advocate that transgender studies follows its own trajectory. She suggests some possible improvements that trans-theorizing may offer for feminist IR theory, which include a more nuanced understanding of gender hierarchy through a pluralist approach to sex, a holistic view of gender that resists viewing gender entirely either as a social construction or as biologically essentialand an increased awareness of gender as involving power relations among different sexes and genders.
As such, Sjoberg advocates for the inclusion of trans-theorizing in feminist IR theory in the interests of improving explanations and understandings of global politics.In international relations, constructivism is the claim that significant aspects of international relations are historically and socially constructed, rather than inevitable consequences of human nature or other essential characteristics of world politics.
Discussions. Arguments over the relationship of constructivism to realism and liberal theory.
Two argue that constructivism is and can be a variant of liberalism, and one argues it can be compatible with realism.
liberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-marxism. Liberalism through the idealism, liberalism supporters believe the world can be transformed form power seeking and war to peace and cooperation among states.
Start studying Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many international-relations scholars treat liberalism, realism, and constructivism as different positions in a three-cornered fight; they pit the three “approaches” against one another in order to show that either one of them, or some combination of them, better explains a particular outcome.
Nicholas Roncolato Independent Researcher International Relations Theory Anarchy and the Paradigms The nature of the international system is anarchy.
This is the statement that the three schools of thought, realism, liberalism, and constructivism, have all agreed to. There is no one set of rules.